Câu bị động (Passive voice) là 1 trong những cấu trúc cơ bản không thể bỏ qua nếu bạn đang trong hành trình chinh phục những đỉnh cao mới trong TOEIC, IELTS hoặc giao tiếp tiếng Anh. Để hiểu rõ cách sử dụng của câu bị động các bạn cần thực hành làm nhiều bài tập. Trong bài viết này, Học IELTS sẽ cung cấp cho các bạn tổng hợp những bài tập câu bị động từ cơ bản đến nâng cao và đáp án chi tiết ở cuối bài.
I. Lý thuyết về câu bị động
1. Định nghĩa câu bị động
Câu bị động (Passive Voice) là câu mà chủ ngữ là người hay vật chịu tác động của hành động, được sử dụng để nhấn mạnh đến đối tượng chịu tác động của hành động đó. Thì của câu bị động phải tuân theo thì của câu chủ động.
2. Cấu trúc câu bị động
Cấu trúc chung:
Subject + Verb + By Object
- I planted a flower in the garden.
(Tôi đã trồng một cây hoa ở trong vườn.)
⇒ A flower was planted in the garden.
(Một bông hoa được trồng ở trong vườn)
Các bước chuyển đổi sang câu bị động
– Việc đầu tiên mà bạn cần phải làm đó là xác định tân ngữ trong câu chủ động đồng thời chuyển thành chủ ngữ cho câu bị động.
– Sau đó, hãy xác định thì trong câu chủ động rồi bắt đầu chuyển động từ về thể bị động, chuyển động từ thành dạng “tobe + V_ed/p.p” cũng như chia động từ “tobe” theo đúng thì của câu chủ động, giữ nguyên cách chia dạng số ít, số nhiều theo chủ ngữ.
– Cuối cùng, nếu chủ ngữ trong câu chủ động xác định thì hãy chuyển thành tân ngữ trong câu bị động đồng thời thêm “by” phía trước. Các chủ ngữ không xác định thì có thể bỏ qua, ví dụ them, people…
II. Tổng hợp bài tập câu bị động
Bài tập câu bị động có đáp án dưới đây do Học IELTS sưu tầm và đăng tải. Bài tập câu bị động trong tiếng Anh có đáp án gồm nhiều dạng bài tập khác nhau như: viết lại câu, chia động từ trong ngoặc, tìm lỗi sai, chọn đáp án đúng, … giúp bạn đọc củng cố kiến thức đã học hiệu quả.
Bài tập 1: Chuyển các câu sau sang câu bị động
- Emma ordered this air ticket for her mother.
- She lends her friend his new dress.
- He left his relatives seven million dollars.
- The shop manager handed these gifts to the customer.
- The board of directors awarded the first prize to the outstanding employee.
- Has she sent the christmas cards to her family?
- We gave Anna some apples and some rose flowers.
- My father moved the fridge to the second floor.
- My mother bought some cups of coffee to the visitors in the kitchen.
- The manager didn’t take the note to the assistant.
Bài tập 2: Chia dạng đúng của động từ trong ngoặc
- Brian had his car (repair) ………….. by a mechanic.
- John got David (type) ……………… his paper.
- We got our house (paint) ……………… last month.
- Dr James is having the students (write ) ………………. a composition
- Laura got her transcripts (send) ………………. to the university.
- Daniel is having his hair (cut) ………………… tomorrow.
- Will Mrs. Ellen have the porter (carry) ………………. her luggage to her car?
Bài tập 3: Cho dạng đúng của các động từ sau đây (có thể là chủ động hoặc bị động) để tạo thành một bài IELTS Writing Task 1 hoàn chỉnh.
The first diagram (1-illustrate)____________the process of cement manufacture, and the second diagram (2-show)_____________ the materials that go into the production of concrete.
It is clear that there are five stages in the production of cement, beginning with the input of raw materials and ending with bags of the finished product. To produce concrete, four different materials (3-mix)______________ together.
At the first stage in the production of cement, limestone and clay (4-crush)____________ to form a powder. This powder then (5-mix)______________ before it passes into a rotating heater. After heating, the resulting mixture (6-grind)_______________, and cement (7-produce)______________. Finally, the cement (8-package)_______________in large bags.
Cement is one of the four raw materials that (9-use)_______________ in the production of concrete, along with gravel, sand and water. To be exact, concrete (10-consist)_______________ of 50% gravel, 25% sand, 15% cement and 10% water. All four materials are blended together in a rotating machine called a concrete mixer.
Bài tập 4: Chuyển những câu chủ động sang câu bị động
- When will you do the work?
- How are you going to deal with this problem?
- How do you spend this amount of money?
- I wonder whether the board of directors will choose Susan or Jane for the position.
- How did the police find the lost man?
Bài tập 5: Chuyển các câu sau sang thể bị động.
- The waiter brings me this dish.
- Our friends send these postcards to us.
- Their grandmother told them this story when they visited her last week.
- Tim ordered this train ticket for his mother.
- She showed her ticket to the airline agent.
- Jim baked this cake yesterday.
- They are going to buy a new apartment next year.
- The shop assistant handed these boxes to the customer.
- The board awarded the first prize to the reporter.
- Have you sent the Christmas cards to your family?
- The committee appointed Alice secretary for the meeting.
- Tom will give Anna a ride to school tomorrow.
- They keep this room tidy all the time.
- We gave Ann some bananas and some flowers.
- They moved the fridge into the living room.
Bài tập 6: Chuyển các câu hỏi dạng đảo Yes/No sang câu bị động
- Do they teach English here?
- Will you invite her to your wedding party?
- Has Tom finished the work?
- Did the teacher give some exercises?
- Have they changed the window of the laboratory?
- Is she going to write a poem?
- Is she making big cakes for the party?
- Are the police making inquires about the thief?
- Must we finish the test before ten?
- Will buses bring the children home?
- Have you finished your homework?
Bài tập 7: Chuyển các câu hỏi bắt đầu bằng từ hỏi “H/WH” sau sang câu bị động
- Why didn’t they help him?
- How many games has the team played?
- Where do people speak English?
- Who are they keeping in the kitchen?
- How can they open this safe?
- What books are people reading this year?
- How did the police find the lost man?
- Who look after the children for you?
- How long have they waited for the doctor?
- What time can the boys hand in their papers?
- Who lend you this book?
- How many marks does the teacher give you?
Bài tập 8: Chuyển câu có 2 chủ ngữ sang câu bị động
- They paid me a lot of money to do the job.
- The teacher gave each of us two exercise books.
- Someone will tell him that news.
- They have sent enough money to those poor boys.
- They have given the women in most countries in the world the right to vote.
Bài tập 9: Chuyển các câu với động từ tường thuật sau sang câu bị động
- They think that he has died a natural death.
- Some people believe that 13 is an unlucky number.
- They say that John is the brightest student in class.
- They reported that the President had suffered a heart attack.
- I knew that they had told him of the meeting.
- They declared that she won the competition.
- They rumored the man was still living.
- People think that Jack London’s life and writing’s represent the American love of adventure.
- They reported that the troops were coming.
- People believed that the earth stood still.
Bài tập 10: Chuyển các câu với động từ chỉ nhận thức sau sang câu bị động
- I have heard her sing this song several times.
- People saw him steal your car.
- The teacher is watching the work.
- He won’t let you do that silly thing again.
- People don’t make the children work hard.
- They made him work all day.
- The detective saw the woman putting the jewelry in her bag.
- The terrorists made the hostages lie down.
- Police advise drivers to use an alternative route.
- She helps me to do all these difficult exercises.
Bài tập 11: Chọn đáp án đúng
- An old woman feeds the pigeons.
⇒ The pigeons ____________
A. are fed
B. were fed by an old woman.
- A burglar broke the window.
⇒ The window _________
A. was broken
B. is broken by a burglar.
- Someone has made a mistake.
⇒ A mistake ___________
A. was made
B. has been made .
- Everyone is going to love her.
⇒ She _________________
A. is going to be loved
B. was going to be loved by everyone.
- Cervantes wrote ‘Don Quixote’.
⇒ ‘Don Quixote’ ___________
A. was written by Cervantes.
B. has been written by Cervantes.
- She is helping my sister.
⇒ My sister ____
A. is helped
B. is being helped by her.
- Pamela will drive the bus.
⇒ The bus ________
A. will been driven
B. will be driven by Pamela.
- I was watering the plants.
⇒ The plants _______
A. were being watered
B. are being watered by me.
Bài tập 12: Sắp xếp từ thành câu hoàn chỉnh
- has / The / door / opened. / been
- on / is / grass / the / prohibited. / Walking
- Breakfast / is / at / served / 8.30.
- spoken / in / English / is / shop. / that
- were / flowers / The / this / morning. / watered
- meat / been / your / The / has / cat! / stolen / by
- is / being / Your / hair / brushed.
- if / they / naughty. / will / be / children / punished / The / are
- yet. / not / car / Your / repaired / is
- because / cake / happy / awful / eaten! / been / am / has / I / that
Bài tập 13:
- Five suspects (A) have be (B) arrested (C) by the (D) police.
- He was ordered (A) by the (B) doctor to (C) take an (D) long rest.
- A (A) dancing class (B) was start (C) last week (D).
- He were found (A) in the (B) forest by (C) the (D) police.
- A (A) car is (B) going to been (C) bought (D) tomorrow.
- These drugs are (A) be (B) destroyed (C) by police (D).
- I’m from (A) Russia and (B) my family born (C) there (D).
Bài tập 14:
1. My room _________________________ in the house by her now.
A. is being cleaned
B. are being cleaned
C. will be cleaned
D. would be cleaned
2. Tom ___________________________ by Mary since 10 o’clock.
A. has operated
B. have been operated
C. has been operated
D. All are wrong.
3. Someone __________________ to take his place.
A. must be find
B. might be find
C. should be finds
D. must be found
4. 20 demonstrators ________________________ by the police.
A. was arrested
B. were arrested
C. was arresting
D. A & B
5. That book ______________________ by Tom yesterday.
A. were bought
C. A & B
D. was bought
6. Much of the city ______________________ by fire in the 17th century.
A. was destroyed
B. is destroyed
C. are destroyed
D. were destroyed
7. Work _________________________ by the teacher.
A. are being watched
B. was being watched
C. is being watched
D. B & C
8. My house __________________ red and blue.
A. are painted
B. is painted
C. was painted
D. All are wrong.
9. The grain _________________ to the factory, where it _______________ and ____________________.
A. are taken / cleaned / is checked
B. is taken / is cleaned / is checked
C. was taken / was cleaned / was checked
D. is taken / is cleaned / checked
10. Jag Niwas _______________________ by Prince Maharana Jagat Singh II.
A. were built
B. are built
C. was built
D. is built
11. The wall _______________________ before you paint it.
A. must be cleaned
B. should cleaned
C. might been cleaned
D. No answer is right
12. The Garden of Clear Ripples ___________________ by The Qing Emperor Quinlong in the middle of the 16th century.
B. was designed
C. were designed
D. B & C
13. This computer _________________________ to use.
A. will be continued
B. would continued
C. should continue
D. must continues
14. A lot of food _____________________ these days.
A. are thrown
B. were thrown
C. is thrown
D. was thrown
Bài tập 15: Đọc đoạn văn sau và chia động từ trong ngoặc ở dạng đúng của câu bị động
The Titanic was a huge ship. It (112. build)___________ in Liverpool, England, and sank on its first trip in 1912. Today, you can visit the Titanic Museum in Missouri, USA and see what life was like for people on the Titanic. Visitors (113. greet) _____________ y people in costumes and (114. give)__________ tickets for their journey. Inside, the museum (115. decorate)____________ with things from the real Titanic passengers, like clothes, letters, and jewelry. All the items (116. keep)____________ in good conditions. You can learn about the passengers and explore the world’s most famous ship.
Đáp án Bài tập câu bị động
Đáp án bài tập 1
- This air ticket was ordered for Emma’s mother.
- Her new dress are lent to her friends (by her).
- Seven million dollars was left to his relatives (by him).
- These gifts were handed to the customer (by the shop manager).
- The first prize was awarded to the outstanding (by the board of directors).
- Have the Christmas cards been sent to her family?
- Ann was given some apples and some rose flowers (by us).
- The fridge was moved to the second floor (by my father).
- Some cups of coffee were brought to the visitors in the kitchen (by my mother).
- The note wasn’t taken to the assistant (by the manager).
Đáp án bài tập 2
- to type
Đáp án bài tập 3
- are mixed
- are crushed
- is then mixed
- is ground
- is produced
- is packaged
- are used
Đáp án bài tập 4
- When will the work be done?
- How is this problem going to be dealt with?
- How is this amount of money spent?
- I wonder whether Susan or Jane will be chosen for the position by the board of directors.
- How was the lost man found by the police?
Đáp án bài tập 5
- This dish is brought to me by the waiter.
- These postcards are sent to us by our friends.
- They were told this story by their grandmother when they visited her last week.
- This train ticket was ordered for Tom’s mother by him.
- Her ticket was shown to the airline agent by her.
- This cake was baked by Jim yesterday.
- A new apartment is going to be bought next year.
- The customer was handed these boxes by the shop assistant.
- The first prize was awarded to the reporter by the board.
- Have the Christmas cards been sent to your family?
- Alice was appointed secretary for the meeting by the committee.
- Anna will be given a ride to school by Tom tomorrow.
- This room is kept tidy all the time.
- Ann was given some bananas and some flowers by us.
- The fridge was moved into the living room.
Đáp án bài tập 6
- Is English taught here?
- Will she be invited to your wedding party?
- Has the work been finished by Tom?
- Were some exercises given by the teacher?
- Has the window of the laboratory been changed?
- Is a poem going to be written?
- Are big cakes being made for the party?
- Are inquires about the thief being made by the police?
- Must the test be finished before ten?
- Will the children be brought home with buses?
- Has your homework been finished?
Đáp án bài tập 7
- Why wasn’t he helped?
- How many games have been played by the team?
- Where is English spoken?
- Who are being kept in the kitchen?
- How can this be opened safe?
- What books are being read this year?
- How was the lost man found by the police?
- By whom are the children looked after for you?
- How long has the doctor been waited for?
- What time can their papers be handed in by the boys?
- By whom is this book lent?
- How many marks are given to you by the teacher?
Đáp án bài tập 8
- I was paid a lot of money to do the job.
- Each of us was given two exercise books by the teacher.
- He will be told that news.
- Those poor boys have been sent enough money.
- The women in most countries in the world have been given the right to vote.
Đáp án bài tập 9
- He is thought to have died a natural death.
- 13 is believed to be an unlucky number.
- John is said to be the brightest student in class.
- The President was reported to have suffered a heart attack.
- They were known to have told him of the meeting.
- She was declared to win the competition.
- The man was rumored to be still living.
- Jack London’s life and writing is thought to represent the American love of adventure.
- The troops were reported to be coming.
- The earth was believed to stand still.
Đáp án bài tập 10
- She has been heard to sing this song several times.
- He was seen to steal your car.
- The work is being watched by the teacher.
- You won’t be let to do that silly thing again.
- The children are made to work hard.
- He was made to work all day.
- The woman was seen putting the jewelry in her bag by the detective.
- The hostages were made to lie down by the terrorists.
- Drivers are advised to use an alternative route by police.
- I am helped to do all these difficult exercises.
Đáp án bài tập 11
Đáp án bài tập 12
- The door has been opened.
- Walking on the grass is prohibited.
- Breakfast is served at 8.30.
- English is spoken in that shop.
- The flowers were watered this morning.
- The meat has been stolen by your cat!
- Your hair is being brushed.
- The children will be punished if they are naughty.
- our car is not repaired yet.
- I am happy because that awful cake has been eaten!
Đáp án bài tập 13
- B (be thành been)
- D (an thành a)
- C (start thành started)
- A (were found thành was found)
- C (been thành be)
- A (are thành will)
- C (born thành was born)
Đáp án bài tập 14
Đáp án bài tập 15
- was built
- are greeted
- are given
- is decorated
- are kept
Bài viết đã cung cấp kiến thức tổng quan về câu bị động, hãy học thật kĩ và bổ sung tốt vào phần ngữ pháp tiếng Anh bạn còn yếu. Học IELTS mong rằng tổng hợp bài tập về câu bị động sẽ giúp bạn không còn băn khoăn khi chuyển một câu chủ động sang câu bị động nữa.